Sunday, August 18, 2019

Public Relations :: essays research papers

  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  How many people really do dream? Everyone dreams, whether the dream is remembered or not. Throughout the night, there are many stages of sleep that everyone goes through. These stages include light sleep, deep sleep, and dream sleep. Nightmares are also considered dreams, just caused by different emotions. Scientists also have many electrical appliances and have done many tests to study dreams.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Dreams are very complex things. Scientists have a hard time trying to understand why people dream. Although recently, neurosurgery’s precise methods of research and invention of sophisticated electrical appliances, have enabled the scientists to increase their knowledge of the human brain, nervous systems, and the body’s biochemistry (Strachey 20). The invention of the electroencephalograph, otherwise known as an EEG, has made it possible for a trained operator to read the brain’s reactions during wakefulness, rest, and sleep (Schneider). The machine detects and enormously amplifies the very faint electrical impulses produced by the brain; placing electrodes against subjects scalp (Freud). â€Å"Professor Nathanial Kleitman of Chicago university, discovered that babies have a sleep rhythm of fifty to sixty minutes after which they are inclined to wake up, although obviously they can’t always†(Freud). As children grow, the body be gins to develop the ninety-minute cycle associated with adult sleepers. The pattern of sleep is acquired and controlled by environmental and social conditioning. However, as people grow older the body tends to revert to the naptime habits of babyhood (Freud). Yet, though people more or less choose when to sleep, the basic ninety-minute rhythm remains. It is biological and not controlled by consciousness, rather as a healthy person’s metabolism functions autonomously (Parker 93). â€Å"Eugene Aserinsky noticed that after an infant fell asleep it’s eyes moved beneath the closed lids. Also, at intervals during sleep and was the first movement when the baby began to wake†(Freud). Kleitman and Aserinsky decided to investigate whether such a pattern could be found in adult sleepers as well (Freud). By attaching extra electrodes from the EEG machine to areas around volunteer sleeper’s eyes, the two scientists were able to monitor brain impulses and movements, wh ile measuring respiration and body movements (Freud). The scientists concluded that there were two types of eye movement. Slow as found in babies and very fast movements, this could last from a few minutes to over a half an hour (Freud). These rapid eye movements, which are commonly known as REMs appeared to occur at intervals throughout the night (Beare).

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